Reading Samples

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Noticing signal words will help you see how ideas are related.

And, in addition, and furthermore tell you that the next information will agree with previous information.

But, however, although, and on the contrary indicate that the next information will contrast with what you just read. You make a sharp turn in your reading.


Whether you are enjoying a story or learning information, creating mental pictures when you listen or read will bring the words to life for you. Ideas will be easier to remember if you are visualizing and are not simply manipulating words.

As you visualize, feel free to add details that the text does not supply. For example, make a mental picture from the following sentence.

Sam bought peanuts from the vendor at the baseball game.

Do you picture Sam and the vendor as male or female? How old are they? Does the vendor work at a concession stand or walk up and down the aisles of a stadium? Is the game, in fact, a major league game or a little league game? What is the weather--sunny, hot, overcast, raining? Does the vendor seem to enjoy selling peanuts? How is this vendor different from other vendors?

As you add details, be careful that your picture does not contradict anything the text told you. For example, if, after reading the boldface sentence, you pictured a basketball game, you would have ignored or changed information you had been given. Similarly, if you later get information that does not fit with your picture, you need to be willing to revise it. If, for example, you pictured a hot, sunny day and later learn that it is raining, you need to revisualize.